"Multivan" or "Weekender", available from the third generation on. In 1994, production ended in Mexico, with models being imported from Brazil. L’aménageur est repris en main, ce qui ce traduit, au cours des années suivantes, par l’extension de l’éventail des modèles : Amundsen, Columbus, Jules Verne et Kepler.Les modèles Club Joker et Club Joker City sur le VW T5 s’inscrivent dans la fabuleuse histoire des transformations de véhicules VW. In the US, however, it is a VW bus, minibus, hippie-mobile, hippie bus, hippie van, "combie", Microbus, or Transporter to aficionados. The Type 4 engine was enlarged to 1.8 L and 50 kW (68 PS; 67 bhp) DIN for the 1974 model year and again to 2.0 L and 52 kW (71 PS; 70 bhp) DIN for the 1976 model year. Search for new & used Volkswagen Kombi Transporter cars for sale in Australia. T5 GP introduced in 2010.  There was a 1.6 L 50 hp (37 kW; 51 PS) water-cooled diesel engine available from 1981 to 1985, which gave fuel economy of 15 km/l to 18 km/l—but gave slow performance and its insufficient cooling system led to short engine life. , Once production of the original Beetle ended in late 2003, the T2 was the only Volkswagen model with an air-cooled, rear-mounted boxer engine, but then the Brazilian model shifted to a water-cooled engine on 23 December 2005. In Peru, where the term Combi was similarly adopted, the term Combi Asesina (Murderous Combi) is often used for buses of similar size, because of the notorious recklessness and competition of bus drivers in Lima to get passengers. Volkswagen Kombi . To distinguish it from the normal Volkswagen van the name Samba was coined. 66 600 km. Ultimately, VW de Mexico declined to produce pickups, and the pickups were sold to an Autohaus, a Volkswagen dealer in San Antonio, Texas, since they could not be sold in Mexico. They included, but were not limited to, refrigerated vans, hearses, ambulances, police vans, fire engines and ladder trucks, and camping van conversions by companies other than Westfalia. Instead, half-shaft axles fitted with constant velocity joints raised ride height without the wild changes in camber of the Beetle-based swing axle suspension. Certain models of the Volkswagen Type 2 played a role in a historic episode during the early 1960s known as the Chicken War. volkswagen westfalia combi 1974 autos clasicos antiguos feria de cali 2012 2013 - Duration: 2:04. edwardburgos2008 69,277 views. Kombi is also a generic nickname for vans and minibuses in South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe, often used as a means of public transportation. Manual transmission and 2.4 Diesel engine. 12 months MOT, 6 months tax. German production stopped after the 1967 model year; however, the T1 still was made in Brazil until 1975, when it was modified with a 1968–79 T2-style front end, and big 1972-vintage taillights into the so-called "T1.5" and produced until 1996. Similarly, in Denmark, the Type 2 is referred to as Rugbrød (Rye bread). Like the Beetle, the van has received numerous nicknames worldwide, including the "microbus", "minibus", and, because of its popularity during the counterculture movement of the 1960s, "Hippie van/bus" has become its most popular. Since the engine was totally discontinued at the outset, no parts were ever made available. Explore the practical VW Transporter kombi, available with a choice of wheelbases and roof heights, safety and infotainment options. Vans were often painted with extravagant designs in bright colors, making them stand out on the road even more. The new engines will see the introduction of Ad-Blu to meet with euro 6 emission compliance. Article by Hennie Burger.  The stock Type 1 pan proved to be too weak so the prototype used a ladder chassis with unit body construction. The Type 2 was meant to be officially named the Bully, but Heinrich Lanz, producer of the Lanz Bulldog farm tractor, intervened. The vehicle is also known as Kleinbus in Chile. In 1972, for the 1973 model year, exterior revisions included relocated front turn indicators, squared off and set higher in the valance, above the headlights. The three variants continued without change until 1994. In 1971 the 1600cc Type 1 engine as used in the Beetle, was supplemented with the 1700cc Type 4 engine – as it was originally designed for the Type 4 (411 and 412) models.  Borrowed from the Volkswagen Gol, the engine is a rear-mounted EA-111 1.4 L 8v Total Flex 1,390 cc (84.8 cu in), 58 kW (79 PS; 78 bhp) on petrol, and 60 kW (82 PS; 80 bhp) when run on ethanol, and 124 N⋅m (91 lbf⋅ft) torque. VW T25, T3 Westfalia, Vanagon Tail Gate Panel Caps $ 5.98 Read more; Westfalia Tap Microswitch $ 17.94 Add to cart; Key Blank (N) for VW T25 T3 Vanagon LT (’80 onwards) $ 15.55 Add to cart; VW T25, T3, Vanagon Westfalia … The Brazilian T1s were not identical to the last German models (the T1.5 was locally produced in Brazil using the 1950s and 1960s-era stamping dies to cut down on retooling, alongside the Beetle/Fusca, where the pre-1965 body style was retained), though they sported some characteristic features of the T1a, such as the cargo doors and five-stud 205 mm (8.1 in) Pitch Circle Diameter rims. $125.00 VW … From 1950 to 1956, the T1 (not called that at the time) was built in Wolfsburg; from 1956, it was built at the completely new Transporter factory in Hanover. It is not sold in the US market because it is classed as a light truck, accruing the 25% chicken tax on importation. For … Following – and initially deriving from – Volkswagen's first model, the Type 1 (Beetle), it was given the factory designation Type 2.. bay | camper vw devon popup roof 4b | danbury | early bay type 2 | riviera pop top camper restord | split screen transporter | t1 | t2 bay window camper | t2 campervan | t2 dormobile | t2 kombi bay | t2, t2b, camper, westfalia … Ver más ideas sobre combi vw, vw combis, furgonetas vw. By 1974, the T2 had gained its final shape. 1968 Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) Hard-Top Westfalia "Cream" bus Brazilian Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) – 2005 Limited Edition 1977 Volkswagen Kombi Westfalia (North America) T2c. SEARCH MY ACCOUNT. The updated Bus transaxle is usually sought after by off-road racers using air-cooled Volkswagen components. The T6 will offer further engine changes in early 2016, but will launch with the previous generation engines. This was upgraded to the 1200 – an 1,192 cc (72.7 cu in) 22 kW (30 PS; 30 bhp) in 1953. Volkswagen T6 Transporter Van/MPV 2015 Onwards Westfalia Detachable Towbar To guarantee an optimal fit of the bumper it is necessary to mount: - 1x plastic rail 7H0 807 723 - 8x gasket 357 853 586 B - 8x Clip 7H0 867 299 01C In 1974, the 1.6 L 44 bhp (33 kW; 45 PS) boxer engine replaced the 1.5 previous one, and production continued this way up to 1987. In 1991, since Mexican anti-pollution regulations required a three-way catalytic converter, a Digifant fuel injection system replaced the previous carburetor. In Nigeria it is called Danfo. You can browse all kinds of models and filter your results by a range of relevant criteria including make, model, model … With Dutch papers and a Mot that expires in 1.5 years. Decades after production of the Type 2 ended, Volkswagen announced in 2017 that they would be bringing an electric VW microbus out based on the new MEB platform in 2022. The 1963 model year introduced the 1500 engine – 1,493 cc (91.1 cu in) as standard equipment to the US market at 38 kW (52 PS; 51 bhp) DIN with an 83 mm (3.27 in) bore, 69 mm (2.72 in) stroke, and 7.8:1 compression ratio. Very collectable status as an original and genuine Westfalia … , Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor (with an initial drag coefficient of Cd=0.75), engineers used the wind tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig to optimize the design. We intent to experience it consciously and with an open heart. In the United States, Volkswagen Eurovan is the brand name. Configure a vehicle; Buying a Volkswagen. There’s additionally a 190 version of the 2.0 TDI … , The Volkswagen Type 2 (T3), (and occasionally T25 within the UK, but technically incorrect) or Vanagon in the United States, the T3 platform was introduced in 1979, and was one of the last new Volkswagen platforms to use an air-cooled engine. There are obvious external changes to the nose and tailgate, while internally there is a new dash in 2 versions. The first models featured rounded bumpers incorporating a step for use when the door was open (replaced by indented bumpers without steps on later models), front doors that opened to 90° from the body, no lip on the front guards, unique engine hatches, and crescent air intakes in the D-pillars (later models after the Type 4 engine option was offered, have squared off intakes). At that time Volkswagen advertised with the idea of using the Samba to make tourist trips through the Alps. One of the best-selling Volkswagen Westfalia 2020 is the 148bhp 2.Zero-litre diesel model (badged 2.Zero TDI 150) and it is easy to see why; it gives a superb blend of efficiency and gas financial system, whereas the cheaper 115 model (with 113bhp) feels somewhat short of puff. The Volkswagen Transporter T5 range is the fifth generation of Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles medium-sized light commercial vehicle and people movers. After 1971, Volkswagen cargo vans and pickup trucks, the intended targets, practically disappeared from the US market.  In 1964, US imports of trucks from West Germany declined to a value of $5.7 million – about one-third the value imported in the previous year. T4s are marketed as Transporter in Europe. The air inlets were also enlarged to accommodate the increased cooling air needs of the larger engines. The T5 has a more aerodynamic design. Find a Van Centre.  Only two models were offered: the Kombi (with two side windows and middle and rear seats that were easily removable by one person), and the Commercial. This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 20:37. T2 production began in 1970 at the Puebla assembly factory. As one of the forerunners of the modern cargo and passenger vans, the Type 2 gave rise to forward control competitors in the United States in the 1960s, including the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, and the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adapting the rear-engine configuration of the Corvair car in the same manner in which the VW Type 2 adapted the Type 1 layout. , Concepts and future models: Microbus Concept, "Splitscreen" redirects here. Types. Nov 7, 2017 - An information site about Volkswagen Westfalia T25 / T3 camper vans. Three further Euro 6 Adblue diesel power-plants with 84ps, 102ps and 150ps are also offered. Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved constantly over time but never saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not only evolved, but was completely revised periodically with variations retrospectively referred to as versions "T1" to "T5" (a nomenclature only invented after the introduction of the front-drive T4 which replaced the T3). Semi-camping van that can also still be used as a passenger car and transporter, sacrificing some camping comforts. Original and rust-free 1964 Westfalia Split-window Kombi Camper. England (25) Body Type . Very late in the T2's design life, during the late 1970s, the first prototypes of Type 2 vans with four-wheel drive (4WD) were built and tested. Fully serviced. This bus has a Engine from 1600 CC. 1940 - 2021 . There were even 30 Klv 20 rail-going draisines built for Deutsche Bundesbahn in 1955.. Offers. European vans kept the option of upright fan Type 1 1600 engine but the 1700 Type 4 became standard for US spec models. On eBay, you can choose from different models standard and available equipment, specifications, features, and colours of a cool VW Westfalia … Please fill in your details below and we will contact you as soon as possible, When you have completed the form, please click the Send Details button ONCE to send, COPYRIGHT © 2020 KOMBI KLASSICS | SITEMAP | CONTACT US | LEGAL, 1990 VW T4 LHD Westfalia California £8,995. , The end of the Volkswagen air-cooled engine on a worldwide basis was marked by a Special Edition Kombi. Its common nicknames are Breadloaf and Bay-window, or Loaf and Bay for short. The battery and electrical system was upgraded to 12 volts, making it incompatible with electric accessories from the previous generation. New vehicles . The next version, sold in the US market from 1968 to 1979, is characterised by a large, curved windshield and is commonly called a "bay-window". Pon visited Wolfsburg in 1946, intending to purchase Type 1s for import to the Netherlands, where he saw a Plattenwagen, an improvised parts-mover based on the Type 1 chassis, and realized something better was possible using the stock Type 1 pan.  Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same as the Type 1's. Heavily facelifted with some new power plants including the 180 bi-turbo range topper.  The "hippie van" remains iconic today, thanks to being featured of the cover of albums by musicians such as Bob Dylan and the Beach Boys, and being used by fans of the Grateful Dead while following the band on tour. 1979 Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) "Silverfish" last-edition bus. The "Chicken tax" remains in effect today, even though it is now commonly curtailed by converting passenger vehicles to utility vehicles after they have entered the United States. In 1987, the water-cooled 1.8 L 85 bhp (63 kW; 86 PS) inline four-cylinder engine replaced the air-cooled 1.6 L. This new model is recognisable by its black grille (for its engine coolant radiator), bumpers and moldings. Up until 1972, front indicators are set low on the nose rather than high on either side of the fresh air grille – giving rise to their being nicknamed "Low Lights". The green double cab was sold to a new owner in New York, and has been lost track of. Like the Beetle, from the beginning, the Type 2 earned many nicknames from its fans. Volkswagen Type 2 (T3) VW Vanagon (1980-1991) & (1992-2002) Features and Specifictions - Engine, Transmission, Dimensions, Cutaway | Camper, Syncro GL. The price of the vehicles includes the international transportation costs to the port of your choice. Menu. 1972's most prominent change was a bigger engine compartment to fit the larger 1.7- to 2.0-litre engines from the Volkswagen Type 4, and a redesigned rear end which eliminated the removable rear apron and introduced the larger late tail lights. When the Beetle received the 1.5 L engine for the 1967 model year, its power was increased to 40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) DIN. In Portugal it is known as Pão-de-Forma (Breadloaf) because its design resembles a bread baked in a mold. Both engines were 1.7 L, DIN-rated at 49 kW (67 PS; 66 bhp) with the manual transmission and 46 kW (63 PS; 62 bhp) with the automatic. The road unfolds ahead of us, wide and open. Report Ad. Saved from westfaliat3.info. Volkswagen started producing Sambas in 1951. Rich Kimball associe son amour pour le surf et le Volkswagen Combi et les regroupe, lors du rassemblement du Big wednesday ", le " Skip Work and Surf" à San Onofre State Beach en Calfornie.  Production would have to wait, however, as the factory was at capacity producing the Type 1.  This (after the 2002 termination of its T3 successor in South Africa) marked the end of the era of rear-engine Volkswagens, which originated in 1935 with their Type 1 prototypes. It began as a camper conversion by a sub-contractor of Volkswagen, and in 1952 the company began production of the VW Westfalia as one of its standard vehicles for sale. , Stricter emissions regulations introduced by the Brazilian government for 2006 forced a shift to a flexible-fuel water-cooled engine able to run on petrol or alcohol.  But most iconic of all, the music festival Woodstock, which was held in the summer of 1969, saw plenty of brightly-painted vans transporting excited young crowds.  The Microbus was added in May 1950, joined by the Deluxe Microbus in June 1951. Late 2015 will see the arrival of the "Neu Sechs", the New 6. These were probably the only pickups that were produced in Germany for Mexican import, and have the "ME" export code on the M-code plate. The Volkswagen Samba, in the United States also known as Sunroof Deluxe, was the most luxurious version of the T1. , An ambulance model was added in December 1951 which repositioned the fuel tank in front of the transaxle, put the spare tire behind the front seat, and added a "tailgate"-style rear door. Lumière d’ambiance peut-être mit au goût !Couleur disponible Rouge, Noir, Vert. Rear seatbelts are also fitted. An information site about Volkswagen Westfalia T25 / T3 camper vans. For sale this Volkswagen Splitscreen Bus.From 28-02-1964.The Dutch... read more > Volkswagen Beetle convertible. The 1971 Type 2 featured a new, 1.6 L engine with dual intake ports on each cylinder head and was DIN-rated at 37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp). The DeLuxe model featured eight rear side windows and two rear corner windows, making it the 15-window (not available in Europe). The two-litre option appeared in South African manufactured models during 1976, originally only in a comparably well-equipped "Executive" model. In Mexico, the Volkswagen Kombi and Panel were produced from 1970 to 1994. Volkswagen T2B Westfalia Berlin. www.goboony.nl. The "VW" emblem on the front valance became slightly smaller. Volkswagen T1 Split Screen Combi. Volkswagen claims refinement to ride, handling and noise levels. In 1962, a heavy-duty Transporter was introduced as a factory option. Nov 7, 2017 - An information site about Volkswagen Westfalia T25 / T3 camper vans.. . What does the price include? This meant that the T2b was capable of meeting US safety standards for passenger cars of the time, though not required of vans. The van became popular with young people because it allowed a group to travel comfortably and was big enough to live in, so it could be used for long-distance journeys, such as to music festivals or surfing locations. In the UK, it is known as a "Campervan". When Volkswagen started producing the successor of the T1 (the T2) the company also stopped producing the Samba so there are no Sambas in later versions of the Transporter. VW de Mexico was interested in having the lights, wiring, brake systems and other parts manufactured in Mexico. . Are you looking for a really rare Volkswagen… The T2c, with a roof raised by about 10 cm (3.9 in) was built starting in the early 1990s for the Mexican, South American and … Pickups were not manufactured in Mexico, nor were they imported into Mexico from Germany, save for these two examples. Demande 35$ aucune livraison Favourite. Launched 6 January 2003, the T5 went into full production in April 2003, replacing the fourth generation range..  The 1978 2.0 L now featured hydraulic valve lifters, eliminating the need to periodically adjust the valve clearances as on earlier models. It was built in West Germany until 1979. Except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s–70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. Wheel tracks varied between German and Brazilian production and with 14-inch, 15-inch and 16-inch wheel variants but commonly front track varied from 1290 mm to 1310 mm and rear track from 1370 mm to 1390 mm. Models before 1971 are often called the T2a (or "Early Bay"), while models after 1972 are called the T2b (or "Late Bay"). Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Combi volkswagen, Wesfalia, Combi t2. Volkswagen Camper Vans westfalia kombi For Sale: bay window | campervan | kombi | split screen | splitscreen | t2 | t2 bay window | t25 | transporter | westfalia. Westy Berlin Taïga 1977. , When capacity freed up, a prototype known internally as the Type 29 was produced in a short three months. Pop top roof, interior facilities include hob, grill, sink, gas fridge, swivel seats, 240v hook up and 12v socket. Manual transmission and 2.4 Diesel engine. Original Westfalia California. Any post-1971 specimen found ostensibly has had its import tariff paid. From the 1964 model year, with its wider rear door, the rear corner windows were discontinued, making the latter two the 13-window and 21-window respectively. A popular nickname for the T3 was "2.6i" or "transi" in reference to the 2.6 liter Microbus/Caravelle sold South Africa and their robust design being a popular choice for transportation of children respectively . The new model also did away with the swing axle rear suspension and transfer boxes previously used to raise ride height. In the US Volkswagen vans were informally classified according to the number of windows they had.  Diplomacy failed, and in January 1964, two months after taking office, President Johnson imposed a 25% tax (almost ten times the average US tariff) on potato starch, dextrin, brandy, and light trucks. The T2b was introduced by way of gradual change over three years. While post-1971 Type 2 commercial vans and single-cab and double-cab pickups can be found in the United States today, they are exceedingly rare. Enter your email address to receive alerts when we have new listings available for Westfalia Volkswagen for sale. The T3 is sometimes called "the wedge" by enthusiasts to differentiate it from earlier Kombis. Compared to its predecessor the T2, the T3 was larger and heavier, with square corners replacing the rounded edges of the older models. T2c in Brazil. Combi Bay T2 - A vendre, Combis à vendre. C159. My favourites Sign in; Used. The new T6 launched with the old Euro 5 non-AdBlue power-plants, but is offered with a Euro 6 diesel engine with 204bhp and AdBlue.  The model was then presented as the Volkswagen Transporter and Volkswagen Kleinbus, but the Bully nickname still caught on. Speaker Bluetooth Volkswagen Westfalia neuf dans sa boîte idéal pour cadeau de noel fonctionne avec Bluetooth pour mettre votre mettre votre musique de votre téléphone peut prendre carte TF ou clef USB pour musique MP3 AM/FM viens avec fil de recharge USB. It was Build in Germany in the year 28-02-1979. For sale Volkswagen Beetle Convertible.This beetle is from... read more > T25 Westfalia automatic. LHD fully equipped 4 berth camper van. The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US) or Camper (UK), Pão de Forma (Loaf of Bread) (Portugal) is a forward control light commercial vehicle introduced in 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen as its second car model. … Refine your search vw fridge t4 van vw doka vw bus t2 westfalia interior volkswagen t2 vw camper t25 camper bay window vw bus vw kombi … LHD fully equipped 4 berth camper van. Sambas were painted standard in two colors. These were evaluated for the possibility of building pickups in Mexico, and were outfitted with every option except the Arctic package, including front and rear fog lights, intermittent wipers, trip odometer, clock, bumper rubber, PVC tilt, and dual doors on the single cab storage compartment. This was so successful that only a year later, the 750 kg, 1.2 L Transporter was discontinued. This particular model had 23 and later 21 windows including eight panoramic windows in the roof (the 23 window version had additional curved windows in the rear corners). The Corvair pickup used a folding side panel that functioned as a ramp into the bed when opened, and was called the "Rampside". Un documentaire sur ces deux thèmes est … Stunning pastel green. naming system.). 12 months MOT, 6 months tax. Commercial. The VW Westfalia is a campervan produced from 1951 through 2003. Our 1972 VW Kombi Westfalia (Nina) A family of four on a journey exploring the boundaries of our normal, giving form to how we choose to live. Later model changes were primarily mechanical. Volkswagen subcontracted the modifications to the company Westfalia-Werke in Rheda-Wiedenbrück. 10 mars 2017 - Découvrez le tableau "Combi VW Westfalia" de Jean-Philippe Barjot sur Pinterest. Adventurewagen camping van, with high roof and camping units from. The 1975 and later US model years received Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection as standard equipment; 1978 was the first year for electronic ignition, utilizing a hall effect sensor and digital controller, eliminating maintenance-requiring contact-breaker points. Early Volkswagen split-windshield Kombis were built between 1950 and 1967. This was a disadvantage for the early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which could not easily be loaded from the rear because the engine cover intruded on interior space, but generally advantageous in traction and interior noise. The early versions of the T1 until 1955 were often called the "Barndoor" (retrospectively called T1a since the 1990s), owing to the enormous rear engine cover, while the later versions with a slightly modified body (the roofline above the windshield is extended), smaller engine bay, and 15" roadwheels instead of the original 16" ones are nowadays called the T1b (again, only called this since the 1990s, based on VW's retrospective T1,2,3,4 etc. The Type 4 engines were considerably more robust and durable than the Type 1 engines, particularly in Transporter service. In the Type 2, the Type 4 engine, or "pancake engine", was an option for the 1972 model year onward. The Caravelle was discontinued, and both the Combi and the Panel were only offered in white color and finally in 2002, replaced by the T4 EuroVan Pasajeros and EuroVan Carga, passenger and cargo van in long wheelbase version, inline five-cylinder 2.5 L 115 bhp and five-speed manual gearbox imported from Germany. The first generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 with the split windshield, informally called the Microbus, Splitscreen, or Splittie among modern fans, was produced from 8 March 1950 through the end of the 1967 model year. The Type 2, along with the 1947 Citroën H Van, are among the first 'forward control' vans in which the driver was placed above the front roadwheels. Like the Beetle, the first Transporters used the 1100 Volkswagen air-cooled engine, an 1,131 cc (69.0 cu in), DIN-rated 18 kW (24 PS; 24 bhp), air-cooled flat-four-cylinder 'boxer' engine mounted in the rear. Since 1991, the T2c has been built in México with the water-cooled 1.8 L inline four-cylinder 53 kW (72 PS; 71 bhp) carbureted engine—easily identified by the large, black front-mounted radiator—and since 1995 with the 1.6 L air-cooled engines for the Brazilian market. Fully serviced. In January 1964, President Johnson attempted to convince United Auto Workers' president Walter Reuther not to initiate a strike just before the 1964 election, and to support the president's civil rights platform. Contact Us Now +55 11 99207-7290. Instead of a sliding door at the side the Samba had two pivot doors. These new engines saw the demise of the now "dirty" 5 cylinder units. Further the bus had a so-called "hat": at the front of the van the roof was just a little longer than the car itself to block the sun for the driver. 3 Months On Us; Caddy Cargo offers; Transporter panel van offers; ABT e-Transporter 6.1 offers; Transporter kombi … The angle of the windshield and A-pillar is less; this makes for a large dashboard and small bonnet. They started a trend in Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, and 1960 Commer FC also used the concept.