These include strengthening of public health and laboratory capacity, which is essential to prevent recrudescence. Jonathon Campbell and Dick Menzies drafted the manuscript. Statistics Canada data41 and provincial reports provided estimates of the number of primary and secondary schools and number of students and employees. Giorgia Sulis is funded by a Richard H. Tomlinson Doctoral Fellowship. For community health care workers and long-term care facilities, to test this population over a month, 4977 health care professionals and 5484 clerical staff would be needed to sample 35 620 people per day, with a total cost of $124.8 million. These included costs of materials (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE], nasopharyngeal swabs, reagents), personnel and transportation. As these 2 strategies represent different organizational models for sampling (contacts are tested at clinic-based facilities, while workers will be tested at their worksites), the results are shown with tornado diagrams. We performed 1-way sensitivity analysis for costs, human resource inputs and estimated number of contacts for strategies 1 and 4. Changing laboratory capacity requirements across strategies, with attendant changes in total human resources (health care professionals, clerical staff and laboratory staff). Testing the larger population within schools over 6 weeks would require 46 368 added personnel and cost $816.0 million. Conversely, heat extraction and saline transport media did not reduce resource needs as substantially. 61° 37° Sun. Mayara Bastos, Federica Fregonese, Nicholas Winters, Jonathon Campbell and Olivia Oxlade are funded through a Canadian Institutes of Health Research grant (#FRD143350). People at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 are unlikely to seek testing unless symptoms develop. Photos. This service shows the median total income of households in 2015 for Canada by 2016 census division.The data is from the Census Profile, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. We aimed to estimate costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required for active testing strategies to detect SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR in groups at increased risk of infection in Canada. All of the authors revised it critically for important intellectual content, gave final approval of the version to be published and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Testing of all hospital employees over a month required an additional 439 health care professionals, 890 clerical staff and 494 laboratory staff to sample 27 146 employees per day; the total cost was $29.0 million. We suggest that actively testing those at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 — and isolating individuals found to be infected — could be equally effective to arrest community transmission and is associated with far less social and economic cost. 98-316-X2016001. Systematic contact tracing and testing would increase personnel needs 1.2-fold and monthly costs to $78.9 million. See Ricky Martin, Pitbull and more stars onstage at the 2020 Latin Grammy Awards Wonderwall ... 63° 43° Sat. We calculated estimates for each province individually and summed them. To sign up for email alerts or to access your current email alerts, enter your email address below: Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. 1 - Comprising those parts of concessions Nos. Costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required when conducting testing of at-risk populations with systematic contact tracing and testing are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The 2011 Census has shown that the population in England and Wales has become more ethnically diverse and all minority groups1 (with the exception of White Irish) have increased in number since 2001. We estimated additional costs and human resource needs if whole-blood sampling for serologic testing with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done concurrently with sampling for RT-PCR. Start studying RACE (part 1). Pour en savoir plus, consultez les informations pratiques Toute l'équipe des Archives départementales du Puy-de-Dôme vous souhaite de belles fêtes de fin d'année. Month S'informer Pour Informer Pour en savoir plus, consultez les informations pratiques. W. Alton Russell is funded by a Stanford Interdisciplinary Graduate Fellowship. Conducted over a month, testing all hospital employees would require 1823 additional personnel, costing $29.0 million; testing all community health care workers and persons in long-term care facilities would require 11 074 additional personnel and cost $124.8 million; and testing all essential employees would cost $321.7 million, requiring 25 965 added personnel. gives you access to C-SPAN's daily coverage of Washington and more than 200,000 hours of extensively indexed and archived C-SPAN video. Find stories, updates and expert opinion. This study assessed needs and outcomes for people with developmental disability (DD) to understand the socioeconomic status of this group prior to implementation of the Accessible Canada Act in June 2019. Retour haut de page. We collected SARS-CoV-2 epidemiologic and testing information and estimated the size of the groups to be tested in all Canadian provinces (as of July 17, 2020, no active cases of COVID-19 existed in Canada’s territories, so they were not considered) (Appendix 1, Table e1). We assumed sampling could be done at existing sampling centres by nurses or onsite by mobile teams. In Canada, the populations targeted for active testing are large — some 4 million people in hospitals, community health care, long-term care and essential businesses, and 6 million within schools — but others have advocated for a similarly ambitious approach.57–59 In other countries, such as South Korea,60 Hong Kong61 and Germany,62 testing capacity was rapidly expanded to help control the initial epidemic wave. Costs, testing capacity and human resource needs for conducting SARS-CoV-2 surveillance testing across Canada over 14-day intervals. NOTE: All figures are in millions of U.S. dollars on a nominal basis, not seasonally adjusted unless otherwise specified. As of June 2020, the Canadian federal fiscal response alone was an estimated $169.2 billion.3 Further, unemployment in June 2020 was 12%4 and real gross domestic product is projected to fall 8.4% in 2020.5 These consequences have led to demands to reopen the economy quickly.6,7, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is primarily used to detect acute SARS-CoV-2.8 Because of capacity constraints, RT-PCR testing was initially reserved for individuals presenting with symptoms consistent with COVID-19.9–11 As capacity expanded and the initial wave of the epidemic was brought under control, however, testing was subsequently made available to people with minimal or no symptoms.12 Modelling studies have estimated such individuals account for more than 50% of community transmission.13–16 This is supported by studies that indicate viral shedding begins before symptom onset17,18 and case series that document substantial transmission from asymptomatic people.19–22 Thus, testing of people with minimal or no symptoms appears to be an essential part of a comprehensive strategy to reopen the economy without creating epidemic recrudescence.16. The region became a crossroads of civilizations. Implementing interventions to reduce inefficiencies in sampling and laboratory procedures could substantially reduce these costs. Scientists hunt most effective policies, German coronavirus testing capacity increases to 900,000 a week, Rapid scaling up of COVID-19 diagnostic testing in the United States: the NIH RADx Initiative, Diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for covid-19: systematic review and meta-analysis, COVID-19 Immunity Task Force: helping to guide Canada’s epidemic response [main page], Medical students for health-care staff shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic, The role of medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic, Manitoba boosts COVID-19 testing capacity — but still falls shy of mark set by premier, Drive-through screening center for COVID-19: a safe and efficient screening system against massive community outbreak, Interrupting transmission of COVID-19: lessons from containment efforts in Singapore, A midpoint perspective on the COVID-19 pandemic, Impfstatus der Kinder und Jugendlichen in Deutschland, STIKO: Influenzaimpfungen in der COVID-19-Pandemie, ALM — Akkreditierte Labore in der Medizin e. V. [main page], An interactive Excel file to estimate costs of expanded testing for COVID-19 by RT-PCR and/or serologic tests. independently classified occupations as essential using Quebec’s stringent definition from March 2020.38 Using a published algorithm,39 validated with O*Net,40 we classified essential occupations as those not able to be performed at home. Brantford West (Township) Polling Division No. Lien vers le site des archives départementales du Puy-de-Dôme (département 63) Informations numérisées disponibles sur le site : - Etat civil jusqu'en 1912 - Registres matricules militaires de 1859 à 1921 - Recensement de population jusqu'en 1911 - Cadastre napoléonien - Minutes notariales - Bibliothèque (Monographies et périodiques) As workplaces such as bars and fitness centres reopen, and industries such as air travel see increasing customer volumes, more workers will be at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity. Much of how SARS-CoV-2 sampling and contact tracing is performed was derived from Quebec during the first wave of the pandemic, although this was validated with other settings.69–73 There is heterogeneity among provincial health systems, and the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 is changing rapidly. We first performed sensitivity analyses for universal testing, exploring methods to reduce costs and inefficiencies: saliva sampling instead of nasopharyngeal sampling (approximately 90% comparative sensitivity,45–50 sampling time halved); saline rather than specific viral transport media (no loss in sensitivity51); heat extraction instead of reagent-based extraction (approximately 91% comparative sensitivity52–54); and pooling of 4 samples for RT-PCR (no loss in sensitivity55,56) (Appendix 1, Table e6). Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, is located in southeastern Europe with the mainland at the south end of the Balkan Peninsula. 2. The fees were received and the work performed after initial submission of the present manuscript. Constantine (Arabic: قسنطينة ‎ Qusanṭīnah), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.During Roman times it was called Cirta and was renamed "Constantina" in honor of emperor Constantine the Great.It was the capital of the French department of Constantine until 1962. Depending on epidemic stage and population prevalence, testing all people in at-risk populations may not be necessary, and surveillance-based testing — in which random samples of the population are tested — may be preferable. La salle de lecture est fermée du 24 décembre au 3 janvier inclus. Interventions addressing inefficiencies, including saliva-based sampling and pooling samples, could reduce costs by 40% and personnel by 20%. In brief, we estimated the number of health care professionals, clerical and laboratory personnel required per day (1 d was 8 h; we considered part-time staff) for each strategy. For contacts, other studies have estimated impacts.75–77 It is possible some people in our strategies are already being tested (e.g., some contacts) and other groups that may require testing (e.g., travellers, visitors to long-term care) were not considered. Documentation hypothécaire numérisée. Performing serologic sampling and testing alongside RT-PCR cost an additional $31 per person, based on an assumed manufacturers’ cost of $10 per test (Appendix 1, Table e11). Les listes nominatives recensent, pour chaque commune, les habitants du bourg puis ceux des hameaux selon un ordre topographique : quartier, rue, maison. At the global level, studies have demonstrated that gender-based violence is perpetrated by husbands or male partners and that these husbands/partners or former partners force between 12% and 25% of women to Table 1 and Table 2 detail human resource needs, laboratory capacity and costs of testing all members of at-risk populations on a single occasion. Further detail is shown in Appendix 1. If groups are found to have a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, routine surveillance testing would be essential to rapidly respond to increases. Surveillance testing — for which capacity already exists — is an important and less costly approach to understanding the extent and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in at-risk populations. The first group consisted of household and nonhousehold contacts of people who were newly diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection (strategy 1), who would be systematically traced and tested to reach an average of 2 household and 14 nonhousehold contacts.25,26 The remaining 4 groups comprised “at-risk populations.” These included all employees of acute care hospitals (strategy 2); all community health care workers, and employees and residents of long-term care facilities (strategy 3); all non–health care employees of essential businesses with major interpersonal or public contact (strategy 4); and all students and employees in primary and secondary schools (strategy 5). Interpreting diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Testing in Ottawa now open to anyone with COVID-19 symptoms, Can I get tested for COVID-19? Pooling samples 4:1 could reduce reagents and laboratory technician time by nearly 70%. Sub-district Description. We estimated costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required to test people in each group or to perform surveillance testing in random samples. The country lies mostly between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, and longitudes 43°E and 51°E. We obtained costs from nationally representative sources. In our simulations, the critical determinant of the frequency of repeat surveillance or universal testing was the daily risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2. This form of sampling would be more acceptable — particularly to children, a key consideration when schools reopen — and has excellent sensitivity.45–50 Saliva samples also eliminate the need for nasopharyngeal swabs, a trained health care professional to perform sampling, and the use of costly and scarce PPE. Systematic tracing and testing of 16 contacts per person given a new diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection marginally increases testing costs and could be accomplished with current laboratory capacity. RESULTS: During July 8–17, 2020, across all provinces in Canada, an average of 41 751 RT-PCR tests were performed daily; we estimated this required 5122 personnel and cost $2.4 million per day ($67.8 million per month). Les recensements ont lieu tous les 5 ans à l'exception des périodes de guerre (recensement effectué en 1872 au lieu de 1871, et absence de recensement en 1916). There are other potential benefits to our proposed approach. BACKGROUND: Testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is largely passive, which impedes epidemic control. Such public health capacity could also be leveraged for eventual coordination and implementation of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. ISSN 1488-2329 (e) 0820-3946 (p). The grant also supports the salaries of Aashna Uppal and Mercedes Yanes-Lane. For more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people.