The hybrid is divided in two varieties:[3]. Everything you need to know about the cosmetic ingredient ROSA DAMASCENA FLOWER EXTRACT (Damask rose flower extract), CAS number 90106-38-0, functions (Masking, Tonic). [7], There is a history of fragrance production in Kabul Province of Afghanistan from the Damask rose. Pretty expensive, huh? Kazanlak is the Cashmere of Europe, a Turkish Gullestan*.”, *Gullestan from Turkish means ‘rose valley‘ or ‘land of roses‘. As the rose oil production season comes each year, the so-called комисионери (commissioners) or in Turkish колджии (koldjyy) – traders would start visiting each rose producer and would ask what is this year’s production. I have to agree with those foreign visitors of my homeland, the Valley has its unique charm. Whole flowers, or petals, are also used in the herbal tea "zuhurat". In Kazanlak it begins on the 5th of May and ends on the 20th of June, in Karlovo it begins on the 7th of May and ends on the 19th of June, in Nova Zagora, it begins on the 8th of May and ends on the 25th of June. Other producers are Afghanistan and Chile. Beyond that, recent research on Rosa damascena essential oil has highlighted its anti­oxidant, antibacterial and anti­microbial activities. [citation needed]. The international relations of the bigger rose oil trading and producing companies would introduce new etiquette and cultural trends taken from other countries. Modern Western cookery does not use roses or rose water much. There are various notes of local producers who have met various traders abroad who tried to sell them fake rose oil for half the price. Leaves with five or seven leaflets; rachis hairy, prickly beneath. A still popular example of R. × damascena is the Ispahan rose. amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "rfk0c9-20"; The winters in the Rose Valley are mild and combined with the airy soils and heavy Spring rains they form the perfect conditions for growing our dear Rosa Damascena which has an unsurpassed fragrance. The resistant cells were 2.2 to 2.8 times larger and had about twice the amount of DNA and more chromosomes than the parental, sensitive cells. Rosa × damascena is optimally cultivated in hedge rows to help protect the blooms from wind damage and to facilitate harvesting them. rosa damascena callus culture extract extract of a culture of the callus cells of rosa damascena, rosaceae Supplier Sponsors. Creation of various songs, poetry, and novels connected with the Rosa Damascena. 2 The National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt Did you know: the small vials where rose oil is stored, ready for sale, is called мускал (muskal) and it comes in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 grams variations. In the early 20th century, out of 479 farmers, 427 grew Rosa Damascena in addition to the usual crops. Everything is checked and double-checked because when the rose processing begins it goes on 24/7 and there is no time for any extra work. However, it was a popular ingredient in ancient times and continued to be popular well into the Renaissance. RECOMMENDED DOSAGE: 1 – 5%. Rosa damascena, also called damask roses, can be traced to Asia Minor. Search by keywords . In order to find out if any rose plants were frostbitten, the locals would pick a number of branches, stick them in potatoes and leave them behind their stoves for a few days, the ratio between fresh and dry branches would show whether they should hire more or fewer rose pickers. rosa damascena phytoplacenta culture extract extract of a culture of the phytoplacenta of rosa damascena, rosaceae Supplier Sponsors. John Parkinson (1567–1650) was an English herbalist and botanist. Evi-dence is presented to support the theory that R. damascena was originally an Furthermore, there are hundred-leaved roses (Rosa centifolia), most popular in Provence, which derived from Rosa gallica by hybridization with another type, probably alba. France and India also contribute significantly to the world market. The cultivar known as Rosa gallica forma trigintipetala or Rosa damascena 'Trigintipetala' is considered to be a synonym of Rosa × damascena.[5]. The list goes on and I am sure you will see how Rosa Damascena has changed the shape of Kazanlak and the Rose Valley when you visit it yourself. The name of the rose refers to the city of Damascus in Syria, known for its steel (Damask steel), fabrics (Damask) and roses. Rose water is often sprinkled on meat dishes, while rose powder is added to sauces. Rainy weather prolongs the rose-picking process and therefore eases the labour of the rose pickers as the rose petals bloom gradually. and Rosa rugosa Thunb. Other local crafts such as carpet-making were changed by the rose and a new style of carpet and blanket weaving designs were created, called: alishta (алища) with the rose ornaments being at the core of the designs. The rose is known for its vivid pink or white and pink bicolor blooms. You may like to make changes in the culture vessel type, gelling agents and incubation conditions of room to over come such problems. Rose, Rosa damascena, ext. Another important trick is to not let any steam out which would decrease the amount of oil produced. ACTIVE MATTER: 50%. June 5, 2018 @ The Rosa damascena Mill. A 1000 square meters of land with Rosa Damascena plants cost between 60-200 levs. Out of 1 kilogram of rose petals, you can produce 1 kilogram of rose water. Two weeks before the actual rose picking, the local farmers frantically fix the barrels for rose boiling, preparing a fireplace made of ‘red’ clay, buying rose oil bottles and flasks, digging ditches where cold water will flow from the local rivers in order to cool the hot steam of the rose processing. From John Parkinson, 'Theatrum botanicum' (London: Tho. ), an important species among the scented roses, yields a highly fragrant commerically valuable essential oil. Known as the Damask Rose and Rose of Castile (and Gole Mohammadi in Iran), Rosa damascena, a member of the Rosaceae family, is a rose hybrid the flowers of which have been used for rose oil in perfume and for rosewater. Back in the day, rose producers would experiment with various techniques in order to produce higher quality rose otto. Damask roses are used in cooking as a flavouring ingredient or spice. Before growing and trading with Rosa Damascena products, Bulgarians living in the Kazanlak and Karlovo valleys would grow various types of fruits and vegetables, craft different tools, and cloth, herd cattle and trade with neighbour regions. Ivan which showed unusual resistance to damage by short wave (254 nanometers) ultraviolet radiation was isolated. Isparta is located in southwest Turkey and it is known as "City of Roses" at altitude of 1035m. In his third letter to the National geographic institute in Paris in 1859, S. Paye points out: “The Kazanlak valley was called by the Turks – ‘Tele’ – the richest and most fertile land in European Turkey.”. There are about 20–40 days per year when harvesting occurs, depending on the cultivar grown. If the weather is sunny and dry, the rose-picking could go on for more than 10 hours each day and the rose petals are stored under shelters where they are sprayed with water as the farmers can not keep up with the rose boiling. There are 3 quality types, the highest quality freezes at -20-21 degrees Celsius, second quality freezes at -18-19 degrees and the third – -16-17. 2016 and 2017. The fragrance of the rose has been captured and preserved in the form of rose water by a method that can be traced to ancient times in the Middle East and later to the Indian subcontinent. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; It has seen some revival in television cooking in the twenty-first century. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; Name: rosa damascena mill. In 1893, Aleko Konstantinov, one of the most famous Bulgarian authors met Ganyo in the Chicago fair in the US and would later use him as the prototype of the infamous character bai Ganyo (бай Ганьо). The amount of rose oil produced from the oil-bearing roses depends on the type of rose. Actively Beyond being known for its heady fragrance, the Damask rose has long been used for rose oil or “attar of roses”, and is commonly used to flavour food and make rose water. This study designed to investigate the Production of Apple Mosaic Virus –free pear and Rosa damascena plants through tissue culture, to select the best growth. The hybrid Rosa × centifolia is derived in part from Rosa × damascena, as are Bourbon, Portland and hybrid perpetual roses. Rosa Damascena (or Damask Rose) has a long history with origins as far as Ancient Persia. You can almost feel the reason why the ancient Thracian tribes have decided to place their valley of Thracian kings inside the Valley of Roses, but let us not get distracted, I will write more about our Thracian heritage in another article! Learn how and when to remove this template message, "ate flower and individual island flowers", Gernot Katzer's Spice Dictionary - Damask Rose, Roses of Constantinople - Damask Rose Kazanlik,×_damascena&oldid=995729879, Articles needing additional references from July 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 16:02. If there is anything else you want to know about the history of rose oil production in Bulgaria, leave a comment and I’ll try to answer as soon as I can. Perhaps due to the low labor cost, these products from India are less expensive than those from Bulgaria and Turkey. The Valley is surrounded by mountains which protect it from unfavourable winds, there is a river or a spring flowing through each little village, providing enough water not only for the growth of Rosa Damascena but for a variety of other flowers used in cosmetics and medicine as well. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The rose oil industry partially changed gold trading, iconography, woodcraft, architecture etc. Bravo!” And don’t forget to wear old clothes as the rose thorns will be all over you. He was apothecary to James I and a founding member of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries in 1617. Did you know: In 1886, the renown rose trading house “Kancho Shipkov” bought 92 984 vials of rose oil from various towns and villages across the Valley. it offers a subtle and sophisticated smell. The roses are still grown by the small family farms but the flowers are brought to stills established and regulated by the cooperative for distillation and quality control. Chlorosis in Rosa damascena shoots is the major problem. Rosa damascena is among the most famous plants used as raw materials in cosmetics.Distinguished primarily for its fragrance, Rosa damascena has numerous valuable properties contributing to youthful and healthy skin.The abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, and anthocyanins is credited for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. and rose water from Rosa damascena is reviewed, as are cultural practices and current research programs. callus culture extract: CAS Number: 90106-38-0: ECHA EC Number: 290-260-3: Category: antioxidants, hair conditioning, humectants . It is thought that cultivation of Rosa damascena originally developed in the Lyzangan Valley near Fars in Iran (Kiani et al 2008). 1 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia. It takes approximately 1500 roses to make just one milligram of oil – hence it is known as liquid gold. Rosa damascena (other common names: damask rose, summer damask rose). phytoplacenta culture extract: CAS Number: 90106-38-0: ECHA EC Number: 290-260-3: Category: antioxidants, skin protecting . no GMO present. Its flavor is pure, fascinating and mesmerizing. Other accounts state that the ancient Romans brought it to their colonies in England, and a third account is that the physician of King Henry VIII gifted him one circa 1540. Bulgaria and Turkey are the most prolific producers of rose oil from the different cultivars of Rosa × damascena. December 12, 2019 @ Its origin was by tradition the Middle East, but recent genetic tests indicate that it is a hybrid of R. moschata x R. gallica crossed with the pollen of Rosa fedtschenkoana, which indicates that a more probable origin is the foothills of central Asia, which is the home of its pollen parent. India has also developed an industry producing rose oil, both "Rose Attar" and "Rose Absolutes", as well as "Rose Concrete". Seems like everyone wanted to test their entrepreneurial spirit or simply ensure their homes smell like roses throughout the year! Name: rosa damascena mill. Gathering the flowers is intense manual labor. Soil sciences and vegetal productions Rose farmers who have 2 to 3 thousand square meters of rose plantation gather their families and prepare to pick up roses by themselves while those with more roses to pick hire rose pickers and pay them per kilogram of roses picked. For example, compared to the Turkish rose oil producers, Bulgarian producers make 40 to 86 vials to the 14 to 53 Vials of their Turkish neighbours. In the old times, rose oil was produced through a simple, single distillation process which gave minuscule amounts of rose oil – the most desired scent in ancient times. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; Shoots of pear and Rosa damascena (Taif Rose) plants were kindly obtained from Taif region, Saudi Arabia kingdom. 6:36 am. If you still don’t know what this year’s festival holds – explore our detailed guide about it. Clothing changed to city fashion even in the villages, The development of coppersmithing,  tinkering, barrel making, basketry. Following an old tradition, the rose pickers put the first rose petal in the hair behind their ears. The distillate from these roses is called "Bulgarian Rose Oil" and "Bulgarian Rose Otto". Rosa × damascena is a cultivated flower that is not found growing wild. Rosa Damascena Flower water is an aqueous solution of the steam of the distillate obtained from the flowers of the Damask Rose, Rosa damascena, Rosaceae 13. On the other hand, the locals would ask what are the prices of the rose oil and would search for the commissioner who offers the best price. We just arrived yesterday June 3rd but only could see the parade on the street of kazanlak. Another famous food inspired by the roses is rose jam – made from rose petals and sugar, boiled together until the right consistency is achieved. The Damask rose is a deciduous shrub growing to 2.2 metres (7 ft 3 in) tall, the stems densely armed with stout, curved prickles and stiff bristles. The rose oil produced from the special variety Rosa Damascena was used for women’s beauty products and perfumes. The relatively small flowers grow in groups. amzn_assoc_linkid = "505048952166834e80a12d9350955ed3"; Hold the rosebud and break it by pressing it upwards with your thumb. Experienced rose pickers say that roses give most rose oil when there is high humidity. According to Gabrielle Turgut, 1680 was the year when rose distillation began in Bulgaria – in the beautiful Rose Valley. It is cultivated for commercial use in an area in the vicinity of Kazanlak called the "Valley of Roses". The notebooks of the old trading companies in the Rose Valley show that the commission taken would vary from 20 to 100%. In fact, trading with fake rose oil dates back to ancient times, seems everyone wanted to get their hands on this golden elixir. Geranium oil would be imported in Kazanlak from Spain, Italy, and even African countries in order to be mixed with real rose oil. For centuries, the Rose Valley has been a rose-growing area of great importance. For efficient and large scale induction of roots in microshoots, a rooting vessel was designed and developed to facilitate the micropropagation protocol. EXTRACT OF ROSA DAMASCENA, ROSA DAMASCENA (ROSE) EXTRACT, ROSA DAMASCENA EXTRACT, and ROSE (ROSA DAMASCENA) EXTRACT. Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in Iran is one of the most important species of. One of their secrets to success was to take off the boiling cauldron off the hot fire and afterwards continue boiling it on low heat fire. When Spring comes, there is some kind of magic in the air, the birds sing, people smile and the scent of flowers brightens your mind! Introduction. Succesul nostru se datoreaza faptului ca oferim clientilor nostri garantie pentru prindere. A strain of cultured cells of Rosa damascena Mill. Did you know: a kilogram of rose petals in 1900 cost 0.15 levs, in 1919 – 0.6 levs and i the 1930s – 20-25 levs. Europe PMC is an archive of life sciences journal literature. High amounts of rain in May and June are crucial for the successful growth of the Damask Rose, with an average of 100mm per square meter of rainfall. Turkish rose oil is sold as "Rose Oil", "Turkish Rose Otto", and "Rosa Damascena Attar", or "Ittar" in similar languages. El-Sharnouby ME 1,2 *, Khattab Eman AH 3,4, Saqer S Alotaibi 1 and Haya Mohammed MA 5. The various arguments to explain the evolution of Rosa damascena are pre-sented along with accessory information needed to evaluate them critically. Could you tell me if we can still do the rose picking ritual at some of the rose fields near by? The rose picking period begins and lasts differently for the different regions. The roses have a fascinating history […], Your email address will not be published. Rosa damascena Damask Rose. Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill. [8] An attempt has been made to restore this industry as an alternative for farmers who produce opium. Bulgaria’s Rose Valley and Rosa Damascena – The Bulgarian Rose, Explore the Valley of Thracian Kings – Bulgaria’s Thracian Heritage, Your Detailed Guide to the 2021 Rose Festival in Kazanlak, Bulgaria, Valley of Roses – Bulgaria and Its Breathtaking Landscapes – Local Guide, How to Get to the Rose Festival in Kazanlak, Rose Valley Bulgaria – All You Need to Know. The most common roses grown for their rose otto in the Valley of Roses are: The way you pick a rosebud properly is using your thumb, index and middle fingers. The roses are gathered by hand and brought to a central location for steam distillation. Also Hama, Allepo, Homs, and other Syrian cities and villages. A shrub to about 7 ft high; stems and branches densely armed with curved prickles of various sizes, grading into stiff bristles. [3] Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask rose.[4]. In the old times, rose oil was produced through a simple, single distillation process which gave minuscule … He was later Royal Botanist to Charles I. The average growth of lands planted with roses was between 2 and 5 thousand square meters a year. Rosa Damascena Extract is an extract of the rose, Rosa damascena. Your email address will not be published. amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; It is a unique region, where nature and the climatic conditions are most suitable for cultivation of roses and a wide range of essential oil yielding plants. The rose pickers pick the rose petals in special, willow branch baskets as the willow does not soak the dew of the rose petals. The most city famous with this kind of flowers is Damascus, the capital of Syria, because it is the origin of it, and it takes it name from it. Psychology / 002A32 Agronomy. The favourable climate for growing Damask Rose has marked the development of the processing and perfume industries in Bulgaria, which later lead to the international denomination of Bulgaria as the Rose Country. amzn_assoc_default_search_phrase = "organic rose oil"; Afterwards, the rose petals are put in big baskets made of willow branches again and are transported to the rose processing plant. This time of the year is the happiest and most dynamic for the rose farmers, as it marks the time where they reap the fruits of their labour that they’ve put in throughout the year. Could you tell me the name and address of these rose fields so we can go there today? ORIGIN: De-differentiated cells of Rosa damascena Mill. CAS Number: 90106-38-0 IUPAC Name: Absolute of Rosa Damascena (Rosaceae) obtained from fresh rose flowers by extraction with an apolar solvent followed by an extraction with ethanol The predominant soil in the region is cinnamon-forest soil which is always mixed with sand and rubble, with some formed alluvial soil types and subtypes created by the accumulation of river mineralization. Rosa Damascena (or Damask Rose) has a long history with origins as far as Ancient Persia. It is the most used rose in fragrances and cosmetics. In order to find out what the quality of the rose oil is, an expert would check its temperature. Rose essential oil production is one of the most labor intensive processes due to the very small amount produced. The bush has an informal shape. Anti-aging Agents (2) Rosa × damascena (D) damask rose Join the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. There were many social, economic and cultural changes due to the vast development of rose oil production. It is considered an important type of Old Rose, and also important for its prominent place in the pedigree of many other types. During the early 20th century, the price for a vial of rose otto was between 5 and 10 levs and increased gradually up to 300 levs for a vial in 1925. Rose water and powdered roses are used in Persian, Indian, and Middle Eastern cuisine. There is a long list of various tools used in each of these processes, some of which you can see in the Institute of Rose in Kazanlak and their museum. A study of 40 accessions, both cultivated and wild, from 28 provinces of Iran, identified nine genotypes and the authors argue that this shows Iran to be the centre of diversity for the damask rose ( Babaei et al 2007 ). The annual average of hired rose pickers was over 3000. [8], The flower, known in Hawaiian as Lokelani, is the official flower of the Island of Maui.[9]. They may be used to flavor food, as a garnish, as an herbal tea, and preserved in sugar as gulkand. The Bulgarian rose producers were pretty good at finding ingenious ways to increase the quality of the rose oil, and as the local producers would say: the quality and quantity you can produce depends on 1. the quality of the rose petals and 2. the experience of the one who makes the rose oil. It was planted in a special geographical region, the valley between the Balkan Mountain. In cazul in care trandafirii nu … The most popular use, however, is in the flavoring of desserts such as ice cream, jam, Turkish delights, rice pudding, yogurt, etc. plant was brought to Bulgaria in the early 17th century. There were many who tried to produce fake rose oil in order to reap higher profits by diluting the rose oil with geranium oil, the percentage of which could go up to 30-40 as in some cases, everyone along the trading line would try to increase the amount of rose oil they possess. Category. This difference is due to the height of each valley and its temperature and humidity. Cancer . In 1860, British scientists would conduct chemical tests in order to separate the real rose oil from the fakes. Join now. Chicken with rose is a popular dish in Persian cuisine. amzn_assoc_title = "100% Organic Rose Oil Products:"; Kazanlak Rose Valley, Rose Festival Kazanlak, Andy Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in … Today, the rose is one of the symbols of Bulgaria and attracts visitors from all over the world, especially from Japan where the rose is also culturally important. 13 Cosmetics Ingredients containing ROSA DAMASCENA FLOWER WATER. wooden barrel filled with cold water which is used to cool the hot steam of the rose boiling barrel. Required fields are marked *. Its origin was by tradition the Middle East, but recent genetic tests indicate that it is a hybrid of R. moschata x R. gallica crossed with the pollen of Rosa fedtschenkoana, which indicates that a more probable origin is the foothills of central Asia, which is the home of its pollen parent.[6]. The rose picking begins at 4 o’clock in the morning and usually ends at 10 AM because the rose petals picked in the afternoon have 50% less rose oil concentrate in them. Rosaceae family flowers. A liquid culture system using nodal segments was used for shoot proliferation and root induction in Rosa damascena and R. bourboniana, two commercially-important species of scented rose. Now when you go on a rose picking event in the valley, the locals will be amazed and will say: “Wow, how did you know how to pick roses? EC Number: 290-260-3 EC Name: Rose, Rosa damascena, ext.

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